Public management deals with what

Public management deals with what

The field of public administration — or administrative services — focuses on the formation and management of public agencies. Public administration studies focus on issues such as public resources, accountability, and the description, analysis, solutions and synthesis of contemporary management problems in criminal justice agencies. Public administration careers also exist at every level of government. Many people today move from one sector to another as they tackle the challenging issues that define the public agenda. Some of the major issues include:.

Post Graduate Diploma in Public Administration - Course Overview

Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programs as well as the behavior of officials usually non-elected formally responsible for their conduct". In the United States, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted civil service reform in the s, moving public administration into academia.

In Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action". In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, and the potentials of the citizen.

Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, " The Study of Administration " in is generally regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study". Drawing on the democracy theme and discarding the link to the executive branch, Patricia M. Shields asserts that public administration "deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy".

A living democracy is "an environment that is changing, organic", imperfect, inconsistent and teaming with values. More recently scholars claim that "public administration has no generally accepted definition", because the "scope of the subject is so great and so debatable that it is easier to explain than define". There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline, largely because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science ", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research.

He argues that public administration is the public provision of public goods in which the demand function is satisfied more or less effectively by politics, whose primary tool is rhetoric, providing for public goods, and the supply function is satisfied more or less efficiently by public management, whose primary tools are speech acts, producing public goods.

The moral purpose of public administration, implicit in its acceptance of its role, is the maximization of the opportunities of the public to satisfy its wants. This includes "Legislative activities, taxation, national defense, public order and safety, immigration services, foreign affairs and international assistance, and the administration of government programs are activities that are purely governmental in nature". From the academic perspective, the National Center for Education Statistics NCES in the United States defines the study of public administration as "A program that prepares individuals to serve as managers in the executive arm of local, state, and federal government and that focuses on the systematic study of executive organization and management.

Includes instruction in the roles, development, and principles of public administration; the management of public policy; executive-legislative relations; public budgetary processes and financial management; administrative law; public personnel management; professional ethics; and research methods. Dating back to Antiquity, Pharaohs, kings and emperors have required pages, treasurers, and tax collectors to administer the practical business of government.

Prior to the 19th century, staffing of most public administrations was rife with nepotism, favouritism, and political patronage, which was often referred to as a " spoils system ". Public administrators have long been the "eyes and ears" of rulers. In medieval times, the abilities to read and write, add and subtract were as dominated by the educated elite as public employment.

Consequently, the need for expert civil servants whose ability to read and write formed the basis for developing expertise in such necessary activities as legal record-keeping, paying and feeding armies and levying taxes. As the European Imperialist age progressed and the militarily powers extended their hold over other continents and people, the need for a sophisticated public administration grew.

The field of management may well be said to have originated in ancient China, [22] including possibly the first highly centralized bureaucratic state, and the earliest by the second century BC example of an administration based on merit through testing. Creel and other scholars find the influence of Chinese administration in Europe by the 12th century, for example, in Fredrick II s promulgations, characterized as the "birth certificate of modern bureaucracy".

Though Chinese administration cannot be traced to any one individual, emphasizing a merit system figures of the Fa-Jia like 4th century BC reformer Shen Buhai — BC may have had more influence than any other, and might be considered its founder, if not valuable as a rare pre-modern example of abstract theory of administration. Creel writes that, in Shen Buhai, there are the "seeds of the civil service examination ", and that, if one wishes to exaggerate, it would "no doubt be possible to translate Shen Buhai s term Shu, or technique, as science ", and argue that he was the first political scientist, though Creel does "not care to go this far".

The eighteenth-century noble, King Frederick William I of Prussia , created professorates in Cameralism in an effort to train a new class of public administrators. The universities of Frankfurt an der Oder and University of Halle were Prussian institutions emphasizing economic and social disciplines, with the goal of societal reform. Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi was the most well-known professor of Cameralism. Thus, from a Western European perspective, Classic, Medieval, and Enlightenment-era scholars formed the foundation of the discipline that has come to be called public administration.

Lorenz von Stein , an German professor from Vienna , is considered the founder of the science of public administration in many parts of the world. In the time of Von Stein, public administration was considered a form of administrative law, but Von Stein believed this concept too restrictive. Von Stein taught that public administration relies on many prestablished disciplines such as sociology , political science , administrative law and public finance.

He called public administration an integrating science, and stated that public administrators should be concerned with both theory and practice. He argued that public administration is a science because knowledge is generated and evaluated according to the scientific method. Modern American public administration is an extension of democratic governance, justified by classic and liberal philosophers of the western world ranging from Aristotle to John Locke [29] to Thomas Jefferson.

He first formally recognized public administration in an article entitled " The Study of Administration ". The future president wrote that "it is the object of administrative study to discover, first, what government can properly and successfully do, and, secondly, how it can do these proper things with the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost either of money or of energy".

The separation of politics and administration has been the subject of lasting debate. The different perspectives regarding this dichotomy contribute to differentiating characteristics of the suggested generations of public administration. By the s, scholars of public administration had responded to Wilson s solicitation and thus textbooks in this field were introduced.

Frederick Taylor — , another prominent scholar in the field of administration and management also published a book entitled The Principles of Scientific Management He believed that scientific analysis would lead to the discovery of the "one best way" to do things or carrying out an operation. This, according to him could help save cost and time. Taylor s technique was later introduced to private industrialists, and later into the various government organizations Jeong, Taylor s approach is often referred to as Taylor s Principles or Taylorism.

Taylor s scientific management consisted of main four principles Frederick W. Taylor, Taylor had very precise ideas about how to introduce his system approach: And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone. The separation of politics and administration advocated by Wilson continues to play a significant role in public administration today. However, the dominance of this dichotomy was challenged by second generation scholars, beginning in the s.

Luther Gulick s fact-value dichotomy was a key contender for Wilson s proposed politics-administration dichotomy. In place of Wilson s first generation split, Gulick advocated a "seamless web of discretion and interaction". Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick are two second-generation scholars. Gulick, Urwick, and the new generation of administrators built on the work of contemporary behavioural, administrative, and organizational scholars including Henri Fayol , Fredrick Winslow Taylor , Paul Appleby, Frank Goodnow, and Willam Willoughby.

The new generation of organizational theories no longer relied upon logical assumptions and generalizations about human nature like classical and enlightened theorists. Gulick developed a comprehensive, generic theory of organization that emphasized the scientific method, efficiency, professionalism, structural reform, and executive control. Gulick summarized the duties of administrators with an acronym; POSDCORB , which stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting.

Fayol developed a systematic, point treatment of private management. Second-generation theorists drew upon private management practices for administrative sciences. A single, generic management theory bleeding the borders between the private and the public sector was thought to be possible. With the general theory, the administrative theory could be focused on governmental organizations.

The mids theorists challenged Wilson and Gulick. The politics-administration dichotomy remained the centre of criticism. During the s, the United States experienced prolonged prosperity and solidified its place as a world leader. Public Administration experienced a kind of heyday due to the successful war effort and successful post war reconstruction in Western Europe and Japan.

Government was popular as was President Eisenhower. In the s and s, government itself came under fire as ineffective, inefficient, and largely a wasted effort. The costly American intervention in Vietnam along with domestic scandals including the bugging of Democratic party headquarters the Watergate scandal are two examples of self-destructive government behaviour that alienated citizens.

There was a call by citizens for efficient administration to replace ineffective, wasteful bureaucracy. Public administration would have to distance itself from politics to answer this call and remain effective. Elected officials supported these reforms. The Hoover Commission , chaired by University of Chicago professor Louis Brownlow , to examine reorganization of government. Brownlow subsequently founded the Public Administration Service PAS at the university, an organization which has provided consulting services to all levels of government until the s.

Concurrently, after World War II , the whole concept of public administration expanded to include policymaking and analysis, thus the study of "administrative policy making and analysis" was introduced and enhanced into the government decision-making bodies. Later on, the human factor became a predominant concern and emphasis in the study of public administration. This period witnessed the development and inclusion of other social sciences knowledge, predominantly, psychology, anthropology, and sociology, into the study of public administration Jeong, Appleby Policy and Administration , Frank Marini Towards a New Public Administration , and others that have contributed positively in these endeavors.

In the late s, yet another generation of public administration theorists began to displace the last. In the s, new public management became prevalent throughout the bureaucracies of the US, the UK and, to a lesser extent, in Canada. The original public management theories have roots attributed to policy analysis, according to Richard Elmore in his article published in the " Journal of Policy Analysis and Management ". Some modern authors define NPM as a combination of splitting large bureaucracies into smaller, more fragmented agencies, encouraging competition between different public agencies, and encouraging competition between public agencies and private firms and using economic incentives lines e.

Some critics argue that the New Public Management concept of treating people as "customers" rather than "citizens" is an inappropriate borrowing from the private sector model, because businesses see customers as a means to an end profit , rather than as the proprietors of government the owners , opposed to merely the customers of a business the patrons. In New Public Management, people are viewed as economic units not democratic participants which is the hazard of linking an MBA business administration, economic and employer-based model too closely with the public administration governmental, public good sector.

Nevertheless, the NPM model one of four described by Elmore in , including the "generic model" is still widely accepted at multiple levels of government e. In the late s, Janet and Robert Denhardt proposed a new public services model in response to the dominance of NPM. One example of this is openforum. Another new public service model is what has been called New Public Governance, an approach which includes a centralization of power; an increased number, role and influence of partisan-political staff; personal-politicization of appointments to the senior public service; and, the assumption that the public service is promiscuously partisan for the government of the day.

In the mids, the goal of community programs in the United States was often represented by terms such as independent living, community integration , inclusion, community participation, deinstitutionalization , and civil rights. Thus, the same public policy and public administration was to apply to all citizens, inclusive of disability.

However, by the s, categorical state systems were strengthened in the United States Racino, in press, , and efforts were made to introduce more disability content into the public policy curricula [42] with disability public policy and administration distinct fields in their own right. Increasingly, public policy academics and practitioners have utilized the theoretical concepts of political economy to explain policy outcomes such as the success or failure of reform efforts or the persistence of suboptimal outcomes.

In academia, the field of public administration consists of a number of sub-fields. Scholars have proposed a number of different sets of sub-fields. One of the proposed models uses five "pillars": Given the array of duties public administrators find themselves performing, the professional administrator might refer to a theoretical framework from which he or she might work.

Indeed, many public and private administrative scholars have devised and modified decision-making models.

Why Study Public Administration

You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. It looks like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Please turn on JavaScript and try again. Page Content. Government remains the single largest employer in South Africa.

With a degree in social policy you can end up influencing major decisions that affect the community around you. Remember that many employers accept applications from graduates with any degree subject, so don t restrict your thinking to the jobs listed here.

Once you complete this programme you will understand the principles on which the South African Economy is founded and have the skills to be an entrepreneur. This includes insight into the management environment in which the business functions to provide the characteristics and skills which are needed to start and successfully manage your own business, and also to have insight into the challenging world of entrepreneurship and the social responsibilities of entrepreneurs. You would also need to be familiar with the economic and business environment in which entrepreneurs function and to be able to prepare a successful business plan. Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. Entrepreneurship and Business Management studies the different aspects of starting your own business. It provides basic knowledge of how to draw up a business plan and all the necessary aspects needed for a business plan.

Public administration

CPUT has six faculties and boasts more than 80 undergraduate and postgraduate courses in a wide range of fields. We also offer career-specific short courses. Areas of specialisation Financial Management Human Resource Management Policy Studies Project Management Programme Management Public Service Delivery Organisational Behaviour Career Opportunities Career opportunities exist in the administrative and management environment of all three levels of the public sector - local, provincial, and national as well as in semi-state parastatal and non-profit organisations, educational institutions, the diplomatic corps or in political journalism. Admission requirements. For all Certificate, Diploma and National Diploma applications, consult the General admission requirements.

Diploma in Public Management and Administration (Dip: PM)

There are many reasons for an international student to study public administration, yet the biggest one may be the ability to make a difference in your own community. The decisions a public administrator makes help transforms his or her own town or perhaps, even country into a better and more pleasant place to live. The issues dealt with are sometimes challenging and complex, taking many years to solve. However, if they are successful, a sense of personal pride can be maintained as a difference is truly being made. Another reason to study public administration is to prepare international students for a career in government or non-profit work. Public administration jobs may be in demand in the future because budgetary funds are low. When there is this competition for money, every dollar that is earned is expected to be put to good use and only a select group of people will have to skills to manage it. A public administration degree will provide international students with strong communication skills, critical thinking, deductive reasoning, analytical, and fundraising capabilities that are necessary to this position. In conclusion, a public administrator manages public agencies, set budgets, and creates government policies. International students who seek a public administration degree may find a rewarding career where they make a difference in the community and become an active part of government.

What Is the Field of Public Management?

Public management requires you to be a leader who can create plans and solve problems in order to make a difference in the public sphere. Read on to learn more about this field. Schools offering Public Administration degrees can also be found in these popular choices. Both nonprofit organizations and public companies need managers to oversee and direct their operations. If you worked in the field of public management, you might be responsible for these tasks. As a public manager, you would also be expected to maximize your resources and ensure that programs under your direction integrate into an increasingly global world. It is because of this extra responsibility, which goes beyond merely running day-to-day operations, that public management is sometimes seen as distinct from public administration, a related field.

Social Policy and Social Work

Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programs as well as the behavior of officials usually non-elected formally responsible for their conduct". In the United States, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted civil service reform in the s, moving public administration into academia. In Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action". In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, and the potentials of the citizen. Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, " The Study of Administration " in is generally regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study".

Social policy

Are you an influential person? Do you find that most of your friends turn to you for your advice, leadership skills and the ability to solve a problem? If being a natural-born communicator, leader and solution-finder is a part of who you are, you may very well have the building blocks to enter into the field of Public Management and Administration. You care about development in every sense of the word. You imagine yourself managing airports, health services, getting involved in staff administration and even making a career out of caring for the environment among many other fields. In this field, you will be responsible for the implementation of rules and policies, managing public resources, as well as dealing with problems at governmental level. In South Africa, the market for growth in the field is wide open, especially because there is a serious lack of Public Management and Administration services. So, take the causes that you are passionate about along with your burning desire to do better and blaze a trail in this field.

Public administration deals with nearly every aspect of public service at the federal, state and local levels and aims to offer insights on how government decisions are made and how administrating government projects carry out those decisions. Public administration prepares students for a career as civil servant and cover various sub-fields that include statistics, budgeting.

Microeconomics I Microeconomics is mainly concerned with how individuals and firms behave in markets with different degrees of competitiveness. This course provides students with the basic concepts, analytical framework and way of thinking of microeconomics. We will first analyze how consumers and firms make decisions when markets are competitive, and how those decisions are aggregated to form market demand and supply. We will next consider imperfectly competitive markets and study how firm behavior changes as degrees of competitiveness vary. Mathematics for Economics and Management B Mathematics for Economics and Management is an intermediate course in calculus which covers topics such as functions, limits, derivatives, integration, and optimization. Statistical Methods This course is an introduction to probability and statistics. The goal of the course is to equip students with these statistical tools, which will form a basis for understanding econometric models in the subsequent courses. As a result, along with other values, public managers give significant attention to outputs or outcomes of public management. At the end of the course, students are expected to be strong in both theory and practice. Data Analysis for Public Managers Knowledge of regression model and its extension is essential for doing empirical work in economics and other social sciences. The purpose of this course is to teach student econometric and computational skills which are necessary for data analysis. The emphasis will be placed on application of the theory from a practical point.

PGD in Public Administration is a one-year postgraduate diploma level programme conducted in both full time and part time mode. The selection of candidates is direct based on satisfaction of eligibility criteria or first come first serve basis. The allotment of seats will be subject to availability of seats. During the PGD in Public Administration coursework students are instilled with the techniques and knowledge used by organizational leaders and managers to execute projects, policies and programmes. Some of the important contemporary and relevant subjects taught during the course include Human Resource Management, Financial Administration, and Public Policy Analysis. On successful completion of PGD in Public Administration students can explore career opportunities in public service fields, administrative levels of government organization, non-profit organizations, international firms and private sector.

University A to Z Departments. The study of public policy and management addresses two subjects that are often treated separately academically, but which in practice are closely inter-related: For practitioners working in a public service field - whether through a governmental, voluntary or private sector organisation - this relationship between policy-making and management is crucial. Policy-making shapes what organisations and individuals seek to achieve in tackling public needs and problems, but it is through management and leadership skills that these policy intentions are realised. Moreover, the experience gained from delivering services on the ground should be a vital component of good policy-making. Austerity, globalisation, technology and changing organisational boundaries all have huge implications for public managers. These challenges have huge implications for public managers and the skills that they need, and reinforce the inter-connectedness of policy-making and management. A key skill - perhaps the key skill - is the capacity to learn and to develop professionally. The Department of Social Work and Social Policy has a long tradition of professional development in this field, and since has combined this depth of experience with high quality and award winning online teaching and learning. Our programmes reflect these important connections between public policy and management. As they are delivered online, they also provide two other kinds of connections:. They enable practitioners to apply a unique blend of academic knowledge, practical skills and wider understanding to the challenges of the current public service context.

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